A Detailed Review Of America's Afghan Policy: Starting with Soviet Invasion to Till Now.

Today we will be having a detailed review of America's Afghan Policy. We will be highlighting the major gains and losses on the side of America. We will be highlighting the major players of the Afghan policy. Their successes and losses. We will also be highlighting the favors they got from America in the wake of Afghan policy.

  • Introduction:

  • Today we will be having a detailed review of America's Afghan Policy. We will be highlighting the major gains and losses on the side of America. We will be highlighting the major players of the Afghan policy. Their successes and losses. We will also be highlighting the favors they got from America in the wake of Afghan policy. First of all, we will begin with the intervention of the Soviet Union in Afghanistan, that was the turning point where America decided to directly take interest in Afghanistan and kick out the Soviet Union. After the fall of the Soviet Union, America decided to remain in the volatile region with armed presence as well as the support of the NATO army. From there it marks the beginning of the "not very successful Afghan Policy".
  • Major Partners Of Afghan Policy:

  • 1. Pakistan is the second most important partner of the Afghan policy because Mujaheddin were supported by Pakistan Army. In the fall of the Soviet Union Pakistan played the most important role. 2. Afghan Mujaheddin were the people fighting the Soviet Army. After the fall of the Soviet Union, the Mujaheddin became Taliban. 3. Russia is an important player too. 4. Saudi Arabia also played a major player. It was the country that was financing the Mujahideen and openly supported Pakistan. 5. China is also a key player.
  • America's Interest in Afghanistan:

  • After the Soviet invasion, the Americans decided to take Afghanistan from the Soviet control and place it under its control because of Afghanistan's strategic location and secondly it wanted to have a military presence in the region, so that Soviet Union or Russia could not think of attacking Afghanistan again. Soon after the fall of the Soviet Union, the mujahideen took control of Afghanistan and enforced Shariah. The country was moving towards stability and yes they were against America's involvement in Afghanistan. The Americans were very critical of the Mujahideen. The different groups of Mujahideen united to form the Taliban. They ruled from 1996 to 2001. In 2001, the incident of 9/11 happened that gave America the chance to Attack Afghanistan. This time they started the fight against the Taliban which they supported during the Soviet invasion. Although the Americans were successful in toppling the Taliban government. They took control and made an American Puppet the president thinking they would succeed but they were wrong. The Taliban rebelled and the fighting is still going on.
  • Gains By America:

  • 1. The Americans' major objective was to stay in the region with military presence. So that they could keep an eye on both Pakistan and China. Through Afghanistan, they can also keep an eye on Iran. 2. Americans wanted to show their World Dominance. 3. By their presence in Afghanistan, they were able to fight Al Qaeda. 4. Be keeping the army they are able to tackle the growing influence of Russia.
  • Losses By America:

  • 1. Billions of Dollars Wasted. 2. Longest war but still could not get the beneficial outcome. 3. Militarized the region of South Asia especially Afghanistan and the border areas of Pakistan. 4. Taliban still have control over most of the land of Afghanistan. 5. Many Innocent people lost their lives in this war. According to the UN, more than 111,000 Afghans including militants, civilians, and army men have been killed. 6. More than 3 thousand American soldiers lost there life-fighting in Afghanistan.
  • Gains By Pakistan:

  • 1. Pakistan is the most important partner of Afghan policy. It has faced a great deal of terror backlash in the wake of supporting America but it has gained a lot too. 2. Recently declassified documents of CIA showed that Americans knew that Pakistan was going to make Nuclear weapons. Official US memos and letter — released under an arrangement to make public official documents after 30 years — show that Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping (in office from 1978 to 1989) also played a key role in convincing Washington to continue to support Islamabad despite its nuclear program. The Americans had the choice of Stopping Pakistan from becoming a nuclear weapon state or stop the Soviet Invasion. The Americans decided that stopping Soviet Invasion is more important. In this regard, China played a great role. The document notes that the development forced Washington to make “a stark choice” between (1) Acquiescing in Pakistan’s nuclear activities and thus incurring almost certain Congressional action against US security assistance to Pakistan, the possibility of an Indian pre-emptive strike against the Pakistani nuclear facilities, and seriously undermining the credibility of US global non-proliferation policy. (2) Terminating the US-Pakistan security relationship, thereby imperiling the Afghan resistance to Soviet occupation, doing grave and long-term harm to US political and security interests in Southwest Asia and with China, and convincing Pakistan it had nothing further to lose by building nuclear weapons or even conducting a nuclear test. 3. Pakistan gained enormous aid for supporting Mujahideen. Through this aid, Pakistan was able to enrich Uranium and build a Nuclear bomb without the Sanctions of America. Without this support, Pakistan would have never been able to enrich Uranium and would have never been able to achieve the goal of the Nuclear Bomb. 4. The financial aid of America helped Pakistan to become financially strong. 5. Pakistan also got the sophisticated weapons that were sent for Nato and American support. The weapons were to be used against India's aggression.
  • Losses Of Pakistan:

  • 1. Pakistan faced a great deal of terrorism. Many people lost their lives to terrorism. 2. Pakistan faced great economic losses due to this. 3. Pakistan's image faced negativity in the world.
  • Conclusion:

  • Now the Americans have realized that this war cant is won and that they have lost money and as well as soldiers without getting desired results. Now the talks between the Taliban and America are pacing up. The Americans are in a weaker position than the Taliban. Hence they have partially agreed to most of the Taliban demand. This war was a policy disaster and there were many foreign policy failures. This war showed America that the Taliban are a formidable force in Afghanistan that can't be silenced. In my opinion, Pakistan gained much more success than in America. It would not be wrong to say that this war was a great success for Pakistan. For America, it was a total failure. Even now, Pakistan is using the war against America. The Americans are now at the mercy of Pakistan because Pakistan has a lot of influence on the Taliban.
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